Muslims must follow a number of important rituals whilst on Hajj :. Ihram relates to the state of purity and equality before God Allah which Muslims enter before going on Hajj. To symbolise this state, male pilgrims wear two lengths of white cloth whilst on Hajj; female pilgrims wear ordinary clothes, but must keep their faces uncovered. These clothes may be kept by the pilgrim and at their death used to wrap their body for burial. On the first day of the Hajj, pilgrims walk around the Ka'bah seven times in an anti-clockwise direction while repeating prayers.
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This is called Tawaf. Thousands of people do this at the same time and only a few are able to touch or kiss the Black Stone , embedded in one corner of the Ka'bah. If a pilgrim isn't able to touch the Black Stone, they hold up their hand to it as they pass. Walking around the Ka'bah with thousands of others represents the Muslim belief in the equality of all Muslims.
Muslims are recommended to complete a second Tawaf at the end of their pilgrimage. Pilgrims next run between the hills of Safa and Marwah seven times. This is to represent the search of Hagar, Ibrahim's wife, for water for her son Ismail. Muslims believe that Ismail struck his foot on the ground and this caused a spring of water to gush out of the ground. This spring is called Zamzam , and pilgrims today frequently take its water with them when they return home.
Pilgrims travel from Makkah to Mina to spend the first night of the Hajj. The next morning they travel on to the plain of Arafat , where they stand on or near the Mount of Mercy from noon until dusk, praising Allah. Islam is a global religion with over 1. The expense of hajj and its distance from many Muslim communities are also barriers.
Thus, Muslims around the world participate in other religious journeys known collectively as ziyarat. While not considered an obligation on the same level as hajj , these journeys are nonetheless popular. The other factor that may contribute to their popularity is that the range of places visited as part of these traditions is immense, and often reflect the cultural and religious variations in diverse Muslim communities. This Ottoman-era book of model correspondence shows drawings of various tombs in Jerusalem, Mecca and Medina.
The tombs depicted in the Hejaz were destroyed in Various debates surround the religious appropriateness of these ziyarat. These debates centre around who has the authority to determine proper Islamic tradition. Some Muslims are uncomfortable with pilgrimages outside of hajj ; they are not universally accepted, yet they remain popular around the world, from Africa to Southeast Asia.
Muslims around the world have their own pilgrimage traditions that exist outside of hajj and umrah.
Black pilgrimage to Islam / Robert Dannin ; photographs by Jolie Stahl | Smithsonian Institution
In some cases, these are particular to a small community, such as the case of the local pilgrimages in Southeast Asia. In other cases, pilgrimage is a transnational affair, involving Muslims from every corner of the earth.
perezaraka.com/includes/eaton/2027.php This 17th-century work describes of the holy shrines of Mecca and Medina and the rites of pilgrimage tombs. As the largest mosque in the world, the shrine complex covers an area of over six million square feet. Painting of a Muharram procession. Gouache on mica.
Benares or Patna style, — The Muharram festival is in commemoration of Imams Husain. This festival starts on the first day of Muharram , the first month of the Islamic calendar, and lasts for ten days. The question of sainthood in Islam is an interesting one.
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Islam does not have a canonisation process like, for instance, the Catholic Church. These are individuals believed to be close to Allah. In other contexts, those close to Allah are culturally specific, such as the wali songo — the nine founding saints of Islam in Indonesia. There, numerous tombs of the wali songo populate the coastlines and interior of Java. The oldest mosques on islands such as Lombok are visited by locals, Indonesians from other islands in the archipelago and by Muslims from as far away as Cairo. Sacred space is an important topic in understanding Islamic pilgrimage.
Whatever the authenticity of the tradition, the Islamic view of space does not observe the religious and secular division that is more common in the West. Some places, however, are more sacred due to their history, who is buried at the site or how many pilgrims visit the place. Scholars have named the sense of camaraderie generated by these pilgrimages communitas. The renovations and expansions of his modest and small mosque, the first in Islam, which also served as his home during his lifetime, attest to the popularity of pilgrimage for Muslims, whether in Mecca, Medina or elsewhere in the world.
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The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. Islamic pilgrimages and sacred spaces. Hajj is the most well-known pilgrimage in Islam. Miscellany of Iskandar Sultan A Timurid painting of Mecca, depicting the pilgrims camping outside and making preparations. What is hajj?
Why is Mecca so important to Muslims? Hajj pilgrimage certificate This 15th-century scroll from the commemorates the hajj by a woman called Maymunah.